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Lacquered miniature painting



Fedoskinskya miniature

Fedoskinskya miniature appeared due to one bad habit, which was spread in the XVIII century. It was very fashionable at that times to smell tobacco. Everybody did it: nobility, commoners, men, women. Snuff was kept in snuff-boxes made of gold, silver, pottery and other materials. In Europe snuff-boxes were made of pressed cardboard, which was sodden with natural oil and dried at 100°C temperature. This material was called papie-mache (crumpled paper). Snuff-boxes were covered with black ground and black lacquer. Classical plots were used in painting. Such snuff-boxes were very popular in Russia, that’s why in 1796 in village Danilkino 30 km far from Moscow merchant P.I. Korobov began to manufacture round snuff-boxes. Since 1819 Korobov’s son-in-law P.V.Lukutin had been the owner of factory. Together with his son A.P.Lukutin he spread manufacture, organized education of Russian workmen. During that period of his ownership the factory was moved to village Fedoskino. A lot of other articles were made there besides snuff-boxes. The Lukutins were rewarded with medals at manufacture exhibits. Articles of the Lukutins manufacture of the XIX century show us sights of the Kremlin in Moscow and other architectural monuments, scenes of life of common people. Technique of oil painting is used there. Troika ridings, outing or folk dances, samovar tea drinking were very popular at that time. Workmen either invented plots themselves or copied them from well-known artists. Picture of A.O.Orlovsky was taken as prototype for the Lukutins’ troika.
Lukutin factory existed till 1904. In 1910 "Fedoskinskya labour artel" of former Lukutin’s workmen was organized. Such skillful workmen as S.I.Borodkin, I.P.Lavrov, A.A.Kruglikov, etc. worked there. All in all there were about 10 workmen there. Artel went on working after revolution. Nowadays Fedoskinskya factory of miniature painting manufactures caskets, powder-boxes, needle cushions, tea boxes, brooches, pendants and other articles made of papier-mache. Authors’ works are exhibited in Historical Museum, in Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, in Russian State Museum of Arts and Crafts and in many others.
Folk workmen of Fedoskino keep to the best traditions of Lukutins’ miniature. Ancient plots such as round dances, tea drinking, summer and winter troika ridings are still typical for Fedoskino workmen. They also use Russian folk tales, historical events, scenery of Moscow suburbs in their painting.
There are two thimbles from Fedoskino (private collection).

Russian thimble Russian thimble


Palehskya miniature

Paleh is a village in Ivanovskya area, where since the XVI century workmen have made valuable icons, also they made paintings and restored frescos in Russian towns. After revolution this trade became useless. Paleh natives began to think how to make their trade useful. It happened so that artist Ivan Golikov left for Moscow from Paleh and came across articles of Lukutin workmen in Home-made Goods Museum (now it is the Museum of Folk Arts). There were caskets made of papie-mache which were painted in oils on black background. A.A.Glazunov, Golikov’s relative organized workshops, where besides Golikov himself such Paleh workmen as I.P.Vakurov, A.V.Kotuhin, I.V.Markichev worked. In 1923 at Russian exhibit of agriculture artists were rewarded with Diploma of the First Grade. On the 5-th of December 1924 in Paleh seven workmen I.I.Golikov, A.V.Kotuhin, I.M.Bakanov, I.V.Markichev, I.I.Zubkov, A.I.Zubkov, V.V.Kotuhin organized "Artel of ancient painting". They became famous at once: in 1925 artel was rewarded with Golden medal of World’s exhibit in Paris. Geat assistance was given to them by art expert A.V.Bakushinsky who wrote his first research work about Paleh in 1934. In 1929 professional art trade school was founded there and in 1935 Museum was organized. Every workman of miniature painting has his favourite themes, but they also have common, always recognized style of Paleh miniature. Convention of colour, architectural shape, refined, gaunt proportions of figures, clear distinguished on black background, lavish golden graphic arts are characteristic features of Paleh miniature. The main distinguished feature of Palehskya, Mstiorskya and Holuiskya miniature from Fedoskinskya miniature is the use of yolk tempera. Egg emulsion was used as conjunctive substance in Ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome. Traditions established by founders are taken by their children and students: T.Zubkova, N.Golikov, A.Kotuhina, P.Chalunin, G.Melnikov, B.Ermolaev, etc. Authors’ works are exhibited in Historical Museum, in Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, in Russian State Museum of Arts and Crafts and in many others.
Poems can be written about Paleh, but you should take my word, because I haven’t got Paleh thimble yet. Though I know that they exist.

Russian thimble Russian thimble


Mstiorskya miniature

Mstiorskya miniature is a type of Russian folk miniature painting in tempera paints on lacquer articles made of papie-mache. This trade appeared in village Mstiora of Vladimirskya area. It was established as rural church painting trade, which appeaved there at the end of the XVII century. Many icon painters worked for Old Believers. Workmen skilfully restored and copied old icons, they knew perfectly well styles of ancient Russian painting. Also they painted cheap icons — "Krasnushki". Advice of art history scientist Bakushinsky helped artists very much. He saw perspective in painting of Mstiorskie icon painters, especially in icons of Klikov which were a kind of cheap popular print with poetical scenery. Bakushinsky helped to revive folk trades of Paleh and Mstiora. In 1931 artel "Proletarskoe iskusstvo" was founded. It began to work as a factory since 1960. Manufacture technique for articles made of papie-mache was taken from workmen of Fedoskino. The main themes of workmen were folk tales, Russian epic, songs, literary works. Mstiorskya miniature has no black background, warm and gentle painting, small size of human beings’ figures, gentleness of outline pattern made of gold are the main features of it. The most outstanding workmen are N.I.Shishakov, L.A.Fomichov, U.M.Vavanov, P.I.Sosin, etc. Authors’ works are exhibited in Historical Museum, in Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, in Russian State Museum of Arts and Crafts and in many others.
My site represents thimble from Mstiora that has tale’s plot. It's the tale "Horse-humpback".

Mstiora
"Horse-humpback"
33x26mm
papie-mache
hand-made
hand painted
Author Kotov
Russian thimble Russian thimble Russian thimble
  Russian thimble Russian thimble

Mstera lacquer box with thimble inside

Holuiskya miniature

Holuiskya miniature is folk miniature painting trade made in tempera paints on lacquer papie-mache articles. It appeared in 1932 in village Holui Ivanovskya area. It was based on rural icon trade which was known since the XVI century. First it was a branch of Mstiora artel "Proletarskoe iskusstvo". In 1934 Holuiskya art artel was founded. Since 1960 it is known as Holuiskya factory of lacquer miniature. Manufacture technique for articles made of papie-mache was taken from workmen of lacquer miniature trade of Fedoskino. "Bogomazi" were workmen of cheap icons who lived in village Holui. After revolution three workmen of miniature painting S.A.Mokin, K.V.Kosterin, V.D.Puzanov-Molev began that trade. The characteristic features of Holuiskya miniature are large-scaled scenery, big, but not many of them, figures proportions of figures are gaunt as in Paleh miniature but outlines are more gentle and shapes are bulky. Very often figures, houses, trees are painted on black background as in Paleh miniature, but they are more picturesque. Plots of miniatures are generally historical, folk, literary and modern. In the 60-ies-80-ies Holui art had a great success. We can name such famous artists as N.I.Baburin, V.A.Belov, B.V.Tihonravov, B.I.Kiseliov, N.N.Denisov, V.A.Krotov, etc. Authors’ works are exhibited in Historical Museum, in Russian Museum in St. Petersburg, in Russian State Museum of Arts and Crafts and in many others.
Thimbles made in style of Holuiskya miniature are very beautiful. They have plots of Russian folk tales. It is better to look at them using magnifier, because details of them are very tiny.

Holui
"Little Red Cap"
32x20mm
papie-mache
hand-made
hand painted
Author O.Hanova
Russian thimble Russian thimble Russian thimble

Holui
"Golden fish"
32x20mm
papie-mache
hand-made
hand painted
Author Sosina
Russian thimble Russian thimble Russian thimble
Holui
"Golden-haired girl"
30x20mm
papie-mache
hand-made
hand painted
Author Sosina
Russian thimble Russian thimble Russian thimble


Author Irina Sotnikova.

Material used:
Popova O.S. Kaplan N.I. Russian arts trades. M., 1984.
Baradulin V.A.,etc. Basis of arts handicraft. M.,1979.
Bardina R.A. Articles of folk arts trades. M., 1986.
Bolshya Sovetskya encyclopedia. Edition 3, M., 1970-1978.
Russian towns: encyclopedia. M., 1994.

If you want to use this information fully or partly active reference to the site "Russian thimbles" is obligatory.




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